The model was validated using the diagram between the actual values and the residual values and Student’s t test was used to compare the predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equation and the measured stem carbon content. Therefore, it is very important to measure the carbon content of the tree stems, in order to estimate the role of a particular tree species in removal of excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The present study can be considered as the initial attempt to use a non-destructive method to construct an allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in a tropical conserved mangrove forest. The values within the parentheses indicate the range of each parameter. The present study used a nondestructive method of measuring individual tree parameters to develop this allometric equation to predict the stem carbon content and it is considered as an environmentally friendly approach with minimum damage to the tree. Most of these allometric equations are used for the biomass related studies in terrestrial forest ecosystems. rivers. The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The correlation between the stem carbon content and the individual tree parameters was assessed using person’s correlation analysis. The mean values of the measured stem carbon content and the predicted stem carbon content using the prediction model for Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 5. apiculata used in the present study had 3-4 months of age with an average height of 46±2 cm with 3-4 leaves obtained from Surabaya City Agriculture Office nursery around the mangrove forest in Wonorejo. However, the carbon sequestration potential of Rhizophora mucronata is not widely researched in the tropical mangrove ecosystems. These genera are identified as most suitable species to be used in tropical mangrove replantation programmes due to their ability to distribute in a wide range of soil and hydrological conditions . Under these conditions Rhizophora stylosa is able to reach a height of up to 30 meters but usually stops height between 5 to 20 meters. Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. ImageJ software was used to measure the leaf area of each tree (https://imagej.nih.gov/ij/). On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. Rhizophora mucronata species as reported by Fagoonee (1990). The mean stem carbon content at the lowest diameter class was significantly lower than the other diameter classes. Two models (Model A and Model B) were constructed from the stepwise regression with backward elimination method: Model A: Ln C = −1.545–2.122 Ln TH + 2.020 Ln MSH + 0.874 Ln CH + 2.011 Ln DBH Model B: Ln C = −2.403 + 2.247 Ln DBHHere, C: stem carbon content, TH: total height, MSH: merchantable stem height, CH: crown height, and DBH: diameter at breast height. %PDF-1.6
Their average diameter is 14 cm (with a minimum of 6.37 cm and a maximum of 23.57 cm) for the first and 15 cm (with The height and growth of the Red Mangrove is in direct relation with the location where it grows and the existing growth conditions. The residual diagram showed a random pattern indicating that the model can be proved to use in the real world (Figure 2). The highest percentage increase of mean stem carbon content was observed between the DBH classes 1 and 2. It ranged from 0.41 to 8.75 m respectively in 1 year and 16.3 year old plantations (Table 1). thesis. Copyright © 2020 W. M. Dimuthu Nilmini Wijeyaratne and Pawani Madhushani Liyanage. Furthermore, the results of the present study identifies that the Rhizophora mucronata as a suitable species to be used in mangrove replantation programs as it has the maximum carbon storage capacity when the trees are at a DBH range of 12–14 cm. Determination of the stem carbon content of individual species is very important and can play a key role when assessing the carbon sequestration capacity of the ecosystems. 221 0 obj <>
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Stepwise regression with backward elimination was used to identify the major predictors of stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. B. S. Sabin, “Relationship between allometric variables and biomass in Western Juniper (Juniperus Occidentalis),” Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2008, M.S. To construct the model, 75% of data were used. The value of the best fit model for Rhizophora mucronata was statistically significant as it was lower than the alpha level of 0.01 (Table 4, stepwise regression analysis with backward elimination method). Schimp. x�bbd```b``Y"_�� Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. This is a very common species in the mangrove forests in the Asian region and found in Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam [5, 6]. Most mangrove forests are located in tropical areas, although there are some expansions into subtropical regions as well. Rhizophora apiculata is a species of plant in the Rhizophoraceae family. As trees mature, they sequester less carbon but gain the capacity to store carbon in their stems [28–30]. Therefore, it is recommended to extend this allometric equation development method to estimate the stem carbon content of other common tropical mangrove species in order to get an accurate estimate on the contribution of tropical mangrove stem carbon storage capacity for mitigation of global warming. The total height ranged from 3.5 m to 12.1 m. The merchantable stem height and crown height ranged from 2.3 m to 8.8 m and 0.5 m to 6.9 m respectively. Data on Plot C measurement results of the Rhizopora mucronata Rehabilitation Forest Dimension. Previous studies conducted in this part of the country to assess the mangrove carbon sequestration capacity have used destructive methods [31, 32]. 2020, Article ID 8849413, 6 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8849413, 1Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. The average height of trees varies from 8.3 to 92 m. , respectively for the facies with A. marina and R. mucronata. This study was conducted in a major mangrove conservation forest, The Kadol Kale mangrove forest located in Sri Lanka. e residual distribution diagrams for the best model for Rhizophora mucronataisgiveninFigure1.Distributionoftheresiduals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the dis- The actively growing trees can store more carbon in their stem. The basic concept of allometric relationships is that the growth rate of one or more measurements of the tree is proportional to that of other parameters . Measured and predicted stem carbon content of, Allometric Modelling of the Stem Carbon Content of, Department of Zoology and Environmental Management, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Dalugama, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, International Journal of Forestry Research, Percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class (%), C. Giri, E. Ochieng, L. L. Tieszen et al., “Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data,”, W. Giesen, S. Wulffraat, M. Zieren, and L. Scholten, “Mangrove guidebook for southeast Asia,”, A. E. Schwarzbach and R. E. Ricklefs, “Systematic affinities of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae, and intergeneric relationships within Rhizophoraceae, based on chloroplast DNA, nuclear ribosomal DNA, and morphology,”, J. Kumar, M. E. Vijey Kumar, K. B. Ranjanna et al., “Ecological benefits of mangrove,”, N. H. Tri, W. N. Adger, and P. M. Kelly, “Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: the example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove-microbe-soil relations,” in, D. M. Alongi and P. Dixon, “Mangrove primary production and above-and below-ground biomass in Sawi Bay, southern Thailand,”, D. M. Alongi, “Mangrove forests: resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change,”, K. Dhanwantri, P. Sharma, S. Mehta, and P. Prakash, “Carbon sequestration, its methods and significance,”, D. Murdiyarso, J. Purbopuspito, J. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more typical height. The method described by Sabin was used to measure the stem volume of each plant . Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of rivers. For Rhizophora mucronata DBH, crown height, total height, and stem height () were statistically significant with stem carbon content. Show All Show Tabs Asiatic mangrove General Information; Symbol: RHMU Group: Dicot Family: Rhizophoraceae Duration: Perennial: Growth Habit: Tree: Native Status: PB N: Other Common Names: mangrove Data Source and Documentation: About our new maps. Growth rate of R. mucronata showed variations on absolute daily height growth rate range of 0.215-3.333 mm/day (average 1.296 0.036 mm/day), while absolute daily diameter growth rate range was 2.15x10-3-0.196 mm/day (average 4.25x10-2 3.59x10-2 mm/day). The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. �f�z�bw�yd�R��h�u��'���;3I���Ye��i�j�����~I�-� ��8:Qc�5̏���!�_��n��0�IL��?鉍���V@���>�Ƥ3,�ք����3w��a�#�֯�͎σ�-bMV����(. stylosa (Griff.) menunjukkan bahwa buah bakau hitam (Rhizophora mucronata) memiliki antioksidan yang tinggi. However, few studies have used tree allometric modelling to determine the above ground biomass of mangrove trees in some regions of the world [22–27]. The mean DBH, stem height, merchantable stem height, crown height leaf area and the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata are given in Table 1. The Archimedes displacement principle was used to measure the initial volume of the collected core samples. In Rhizophora mucronata, the bacterial treatment increased the shoot height growth at different levels of salinity. However, the removal of plants from their natural ecosystem can have detrimental effects to the global climate and therefore currently it is not encouraged to remove plants even for the research purposes. Seventy individual trees of Rhizophora mucronata were selected from the study area based on purposive sampling. However, considering the current global warming conditions in the world, it is important to consider the carbon sequestration capacity of the selected species for replantation as the mangrove plants are considered to be excellent carbon dioxide removers from the atmosphere [11, 12]. We therefore selected three species of mangroves with different propagule size: Avicennia marina (2.5 ± 0.3 cm), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (16 ± 2 cm) and Rhizophora mucronata (36 ± 3 cm). We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. phoraceae), Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, and Sonneratia alba. The values within parentheses indicate the range of variation of the measured and predicted stem carbon content. Therefore, total height, stem height, and crown height were eliminated to refit the model. The stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata showed significant positive correlations with DBH (R2 = 0.797, ), total stem height (R2 = 0.648, ≤0.001) and merchantable stem height (R2 = 0.697, ≤0.001) (Table 3). HabitatInhabits the intertidal wetland zone, 0–6 m (0–20 ft) elevation between mean sea level and highest tides, with variable rainfall. A diameter tape was used to measure the diameter at breast height (DBH) of each tree, and the clinometer method was used to measure the total tree height, tree crown height, and merchantable stem height. The black mangrove, usually of moderate height, sometimes grows 18 to 21 metres (59 to 69 feet) tall. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m 2 to 50.5 m 2. Table 4. This effect was higher by 44.2% in the bacillus-treated seedlings grown under 35 g l-1 salinity (Figure 1), by 39.6% in the mixture treated seedlings raised under 17.5 g l-1, and by 28.1% in the azotobacter-treated The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. For the best fit model, the explanatory variable DBH was statistically significant and the high R2 value of the best fit model indicated that the dependent variable which is the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata can be explained up to high percentage (more than 60%) by the selected explanatory variable, which is DBH. B. Kauffman et al., “The potential of Indonesian mangrove forests for global climate change mitigation,”. Rhizophora mucronata is a slow-growing, much-branched, evergreen tree growing up to 27 metres tall, with a bole 50 - 70 cm in diameter On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. In order to find whether the explanatory variables were related to each other, multicollinearity was checked. raised by the authors for three years along the Vellar estuary (Lat. ... as well as Rhizophora mucronata, ... Island in Western Visayas, while 12 were discovered in Masinloc, and they have an average diameter of 5.5 centimeters and height of 6 meters. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. The most common tropical mangrove genera include Avicennia, Rhizophora, Bruguiera, and Sonneratia. Generally, mature trees are expected to have long carbon residence time. Two times of assessments, 17 May and 19 August 2015 were done to monitor and evaluate 325 ten months-rehabilitated seedlings. The percentage increase of mean stem carbon content compared to previous diameter class was also calculated. 418. 079 45' 29.9'' E), southeast coast of India was selected for pruning experiment. Subscribe today. M. L. G. Soares and Y. Schaeffer-Novelli, “Above-ground biomass of mangrove species. The total leaf area of the sampled trees ranged from 1.7 m2 to 50.5 m2. The leaves are 5 to 7.5 cm (2 to 3 inches) long, opposite, oblong or spear-shaped; the upper surface is green and glossy, the lower surface whitish or grayish. Distribution of the residuals for the models indicated a random pattern, and the distribution were between +1 and 1 implying a good fit for linear model (Figure 1). Description A small to medium-sized tree, 2–5 m, even up to 10 m tall, with strong apical dominance. Tree allometry is an important tool for estimating tree weight from independent variables such as trunk diameter, tree height, crown height, total height that are easily measurable in the field. Declining tree growth over time is caused due to changes in the supply rate of required resources (light, nutrients, and water), change in balance between photosynthesis and respiration, increased hydraulic resistance, decreased nutrient supply, or genetic changes with meristem age which can result in increased carbon storage capacity of the mature trees compared to the new trees [17–21]. The model bias value was very close to 0, and the modelling efficiency value was close to one indicating that the selected model is well suited to predict the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata. Only 75% of data were used in construction of the model while other 25% of data were used in model validation. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres is a more. The tree often branches from low down, and can have more than one bole, which can be 25 - 60cm in diameter [. The best fitted model was used to estimate the stem carbon content of reserved 25% of trees. The approximate global area covered by mangrove forests is estimated to be 140,000 km2 with the highest extent of mangroves occurring in Asia (42%), followed by Africa (20%) and North and Central America (15%) . Plant height varied significantly between species or age of plantation (p<0.01 ), but not between season of analysis. SizeCan reach 30–40 m (100–130 ft) in height, although commonly reaches 5–8 m (16–26 ft). Asiatic Mangrove ( Rhizophora mucronata ) Height: up to 30 m Origin: Southeast Asia Environment: tidal creeks and coastal areas Climate: wet, tropical Notes: The Asiatic Mangrove grows on the banks of tidal creeks, around estuaries and in areas flooded by daily high tides. The data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. The Mean Annual Increment (MAI) of stem diameter and height of R. mucronata and A. marina seedlings is shown on the Table 4. Coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests are identified as blue carbon ecosystems and they store more carbon per unit area than terrestrial forests and therefore are recognized as highly important ecosystems to mitigate climate change . Propagules, those about to detach from trees were collected in August, 2013 in Pambala lagoon, Sri Lanka (7°34’N, 79°48’E) to use in the experiment. growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres on the banks of. 6s+�E�9��e["�" R@D����$��``�4�/�!O�g`*�` *��
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Classification. There was no significant difference of the mean measured stem carbon content and the mean predicted stem carbon content from the allometric equations developed for Rhizophora mucronata (Table 5, Student’s t test, ). As it is always better to keep the model simple in the real-world application, the model B was selected as the best model for Rhizophora mucronata. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Increment borer was used to collect core samples of tree trunk from each tree at breast height with relatively minor injury to the tree. Findings of the present study can be extended to estimate the functional capacities carbon sequestration by other Sri Lankan mangroves, and therefore encourage rational decision making on conservation and management of mangrove areas for their ecological services including their carbon sequestration capacity and influence to mitigate predicted climatic changes. Qualitative assessment of vegetation structure often uses species richness, plant height and apparent zonation of … When selecting mangrove species for replantation, the factors such as their adaptability, growth rate, and the extent of the root system are considered as high-priority characteristics. mangrove area of Muara Angke Jakarta using Rhizophora mucronata seedlings with spacings of 0.25 m x 0.25 m, 0.5 m x 0.5 m, and 1 m x 1 m. The plant height was 8 % higher in Rhizophora mucronata than that in Avicennia marina. The stem carbon content of the sampled trees ranged from 3.5 kg to 109.6 kg (Table 1). The measured stem carbon content of the Rhizophora mucronata trees used for model validation ranged from 1.3 kg to 4.3 kg and their predicted values ranged from 1.3 kg to 3.6 kg. There has been no specific study to highlight why R. mucronata became the dominant species of the Therefore, the present study was conducted with the objective of using a nondestructive method to estimate the stem carbon content of Rhizophora mucronata in conserved tropical mangrove ecosystems. Carbon sequestration performance at each diameter class was determined by calculating the mean stem carbon content at each diameter class. These parameters can either be measured in sample (representative) areas, i.e. Rhizophora mucronata has a developed strong root system, which can hold the sediments tightly, and thereby, they can serve as very important coastline stabilizers to protect the coastal ecosystems from strong storms, waves, and coastal erosion.
2020 rhizophora mucronata height