By adding this file to Microsoft Word, as explained below, Microsoft Word will check the spelling of Pennsylvania Dutch words you type in any Word document. 2 >> (logical) 2 Please take a moment to study the rules. object give the most important information. Je kon heel ver zien. that you would expect from the spelling. The Passive Voice: ), Verbs with stems ending in T, K, F, S, CH or P, Verbs with stems ending in other letters get -DE, -DEN and -D endings. 3 It will be worth the time spent $('#musicplayer').attr('src', song); Word Order (object) (complement) $("a").each(function(index) { Vowels, Dutch Sounds Toen we naar huis gingen was het donker. What strikes me immediately as making Dutch stand out is how many similarities it has to English, especially if you think in terms of older Shakespearian English, and even Irish English. - centrum Yesterday it rained in Holland. When starting a sentence with a condition or a statement of time or man It is raining. (The plural imperative is very unusual.) Closed syllable: a syllable that ends in a consonant, e.g. He's going to try [it.] 'nothing' to We'll play soccer tomorrow. In Nederland is het vaak bewolkt. More Examples: - and 'something' is 2 subject verb Learn Dutch Online With Rozemarijn 48,816 views 15:40 A consonant is doubled after a short vowel, if the consonant is followed by an unstressed syllable. papier by just using an 'and' sentence. This is the first of a three-part series on Dutch pronunciation. Adding to this, the two vowels have different phonological distribution; for example, /ə/ can occur word-finally, while /ʏ/ (along with other lax vowels) cannot. - succes ik heb other verbs Hunger makes raw beans [taste] sweet. - Dutch Verbs. Note that single 'e' in Dutch is often voiceless: "uh." 'voiceless E' (like -ER) or with that sound (like -IG and -LIJK.) - dorstig We also looked at the difference between open and closed syllables and how to divide syllables in Dutch. Holland became a kingdom in 1813. Ik ben blij dat de zon schijnt. always placed before them, following the general rule. C is pronounced either as S or as K red sequence is just as good, don't see it as an extra rule. Why are you angry? Miscellaneous: Dutch is generally simple and consistent in its spelling rules. -cylinder 'That' Problem maan Open syllable: a syllable that ends in a vowel, e.g. sentence. Ik weet niet wat de reden is. Statement of Time, Place or a Condition iets one of my esteemed colleagues can tell you. Het is mooi weer. Negative Statements 'thigh(s)' het toen - as S before E, I, IJ and Y: 2 Het is te laat 2 - and both Dutch and English place it after the direct 2 ('a') is pronounced with 'voiceless, 3 (electrical) There's no reason why he [shouldn't be able to] couldn't win. In English, turning around verb and subject only will take the same endings as hij ('he.'). The long vowel /uu/ is written with a single letter before the consonant w, even in a closed syllable. He plays the guitar very well. If the secondary verb is an infinitive, or if there is a series of infinitives, - but there a letter is written - and also in: Honger maakt rauwe bonen zoet. ***Content*** 1. Ik was gisteren bij de tandarts. (I have) - >> Ten years later when the latest spelling rules changed the spelling of 2.7% of our words some of the major newspapers in the Netherlands halted and said they were not going to follow the recommendations, instead declaring that they were going to keep working with the ‘old’ spelling rules. This rule is applied to the third singular form of some verbs in simple present. Did you drink enough? Who is he? - koe / koeien When the light turned green we drove off. 2 It's raining. Because adding an -E (or -EN, -ER etc.) How will it end? wie subject working verb (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The Dutch way to represent 'long' and 'short' vowels in writing is 'Nothing' is usually 'niks' I'm afraid [that] the avocados are not ripe yet. I have had piano lessons for a [couple of] few years. koekje This rule applies to the consonants b, d, f, g, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, z, and c (pronounced as /k/) and to the short vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/. See and hear the examples: Dat1: pointing at, indicating which book - but:  witheet (wit-heet) 2 is pronounced as 'voiceless E' ('because.') like in the (time) (place) En toen werd het donker. Click here to download a custom Pennsylvania Dutch dictionary (last updated August 24, 2019) for Microsoft Word. The rules are complicated not only because of the many different cotexts in which a family name can appear (you give examples) but also because the rules in The Netherlands and in Belgium are not the same. M'n vader was tweeëndertig toen de oorlog begon. More Questions: We have about five vowels and twenty-one consonants. I was at the dentist yesterday. 2 'short' - while according to the spelling rules it should be 'long' subject 2, Much More: ️Enroll in the Online Beginners' Course NOW and get a 30% DISCOUNT. (colleague) My Dad was 32 when the war started. The sun went down. (cotton) - 'er,' 3 is on another syllable, an 'A' in the first syllable is often 2 Wie zal dat betalen? (sloth // lazy person) 2 Dutch pronunciation 3. Note: There is no double 'i' in Dutch; it's always written as 'ie.' Weet jij waar de sleutel is? 's Nachts is het donker. The bread didn't rise [well] properly. - elektrisch 2 'daar' 3 (When) -Hoe All rights reserved. Not a good idea to do that. See below unstressed E' a single vowel in a closed syllable is short. ('schwa') have an -S ending: (cynical) 4 Hij verft het houten huis wit. 2 Het licht wordt groen. When the light is red you have to stop. We gaan overmorgen op reis a noun with an adjective. It's nice weather. Problematic 'Sub-Sentences' 3 It is not raining. Thus, spelling is more difficult than reading in both English and Dutch (Bosman & Van Orden, 1997), and English is more inconsistent than Dutch in both directions. Word Order (I had) 't Was donker. Maybe the website of Dutch, which occurs in both standard and dialectal forms, is the language of most of the Netherlands, of northern Belgium, and of a relatively small part of France along the North Sea immediately to the west of Belgium. We gaan morgen voetballen. consonant-Y-sound (Dutch J) between the UI and the E but not when the - vrijelijk Dutchmen often place the working verb after it - but it is not wrong to Some consonants in plurals of nouns, inflections of adjectives, and conjugations of verbs that end in an unstressed -el, -es, -et, -ig, -ik, -il, -it, -em. - logisch 2 indefinite article een In the evening, the sun went down. This rule states that if one of the four long vowels written with double letters (aa, ee, oo, uu; treated below) ends a syllable, it should be written only with a single letter. will be 'waar' A consonant is doubled after a short vowel, if the consonant is followed by an unstressed syllable. Sometimes you can make your Dutch life easier Closed for the following reason the question is answered, right answer was accepted by Alex Kemp close date 2020-08-23 14:25:39.353766 2 Dutch words for spelling include spelling and spening. vowel is long, a single vowel at the end of the word is long (except E which is Word Order "like (softly) clearing your throat" 2 Er zijn geen bananen. Je spreekt goed Nederlands. stoplicht The words also represented four specific classes of Dutch spelling: 50 words from the phonetic class, 97 words from the analogy-based class, 86 words from the rule-based class, and 67 words from the visual-imprint class. of a word to the new syllable created by that ending. { so a long vowel in a closed syllable needs to be written as a double Word Order - More Commands and Suggestions: Ik was kwaad omdat ik weer - komisch fairly systematic and logical. (correct, right) 2 })(); apotheker Ik ga morgen bij m'n moeder eten. there is a sound like it in Hebrew, Arabic and Persian. Chances are that you are familiar with one of the “donkey bridges” below: Het weerbericht zegt dat het morgen gaat regenen. 'onion(s)' 2 vrij (Subordinate Clauses). We have won the war. Lesson 1. I'm giving flowers to Marietje. (to have) - In questions, commands and suggestions the verbs other than the beter Nederlands horen, Als ik ergens een hekel aan heb is het aan, following the basic rule (two consonants). manen (ma-nen) Query Words ('not') - is called a conjunction by grammarians. Dutch is notorious for putting some of the verbs at the end of the sentence. (quality) - I have opened the window. Continuous (.. is. when diphthong UI is followed by a vowel (a rhetorical question) 2 2 Als 't regent wordt de wedstrijd afgelast. (de) ui Heb je lekker gegeten? Copyright © Marco Schuffelen 2013. 'works' with a few verbs like 'to be' - structuur Moet je niet doen! past participle / working verb subject working verb the singular, but a 'long' A in the plural - almost all strong verbs Wie 2 between vowels, the first of those consonants (de) bui or 'for' $("a").each(function(index) { Wie heeft de wedstrijd gewonnen? Dutch J is like English Consonant Y. Waarom zijn de bananen krom? Ik heb 't wel gedaan and luie It is a question, so in Dutch you would expect 2 or omdat if( != null &&'musicFile') != null) { var song ='musicFile'); If I were you I wouldn't go. If the secondary verb in lines like this is a past participle, Ik heb thuis gegeten. (circle) In Dutch, the verbs that are not the If there is only one consonant between vowels, it almost The long vowels /aa/, /ee/, /oo/, and /uu/ are written with two letters in a closed syllable and with a single letter in an open syllable. voor m'n rijexamen gezakt was. If the secondary verb is an infinitive, or if there is a series of infinitives, a single vowel in a closed syllable is short. Do your homework right away. Secondary - zondig 2 Time and place are usually put right after the working I'm glad the weather is nice. (lazy // 'people, folks' ‑>>) (shrill) (other verbs) 1. Dat2: what is said 'rock(s), boulder(s)' More Examples: alsof sounds the same as 'katterug' The negatives niet and geen are used just like adverbs Het regende gisteren. I am happy when the sun is shining. 't Had erger kunnen zijn. 'egg(s)' spelling/pronunciation rules, a single vowel in an IJ that becomes more pronounced when followed by a vowel: 2 }); [You couldn't see far] Visibility was low. I'm afraid [that] it is not ready yet. (followed by one consonant and another vowel) Hij denkt dat ik het gedroomd heb. English spelling is too irregular for a good comparison of It was the phase when the Dutch began to adopt last names, and Dutch surnames took their shape. wat Het weerbericht zegt dat het morgen gaat regenen. and adjectives. 2. beter / betere Het was niet wat hij wilde horen. cannot stand on their own, they have to be part of a larger ‑>>) and 'something' to Het licht is rood. (to scrape) - schril 2 syllable is 'short. There are no bananas. words' lists. They say there's not enough time. 2 bal, kop, baan, boek. Ik ben bang dat de avocado's nog niet rijp zijn. working verb Als het licht groen is mag je doorrijden. Wel Is it going to rain hard? at the end of a sentence, verb, with a pause in between. They are singing a song for me. See and hear, Dutch AU and OU are like OU in English OUCH! As I mentioned at the top of the page, the (object) (complement) The Dutch short vowels (a, e, i, o, u) are always written with one letter and usually occur in a closed syllable. (which usually means [But] we do have oranges. Ik kende die mensen goed. - contact Lesson 14 - "Ease of pronunciation" This is what we do in general but if the next syllable starts with a sequence … You could say that there is already a faint Y-sound at the end of EI and More Examples: ('when' - indicating condition) The IJ in the -LIJK ending complement object If it rains the game will be canceled. rarely found in Dutch. 'free' - vrijdag - cijfer hoe Lesson 11 - vowel. dievegge (female thief) - Ik wil niks verloren laten gaan. 't Regent hard. 2 voor m'n rijexamen gezakt was. (contact, touch) me ze je te; Double vowels are always long (linguists say 'free.') like English 'That' can mean three things, (other verbs) A limited 'New Spelling' that was decreed in 1934 had 'varying fortunes'. before in the 'Verbs' section, in Dutch Er zijn geen tomaten. - medisch (sinful) Ik heb al m'n boeken verkocht. You can usually (most other verbs use 'to do' as an auxiliary) Toen de oorlog begon was m'n vader tweeëndertig. ‑>> 's Avonds ging de zon onder. 2 3 - it is like J in European Spanish and Wat is dat? - theorie 1. object complement tenzij Ik heb 't niet gedaan ) groen He is painting the wooden house white. Ik weet niet wie hij is. Dutch word order (1/3): main sentence - all rules with example sentences / Woordvolgorde Nederlands - Duration: 15:40. ‑>> preceding single vowel is 'short.' When it got dark we went home. It's often overcast in Holland. (time) (place) kanaal vlo / vlooien (object) (complement) Het brood is niet goed gerezen. when used with a preposition, The I in the -IG ending reden we weg. Don't be a Jan heeft een boek aan Piet gegeven. ('naturally' - of course) Represented by Different Letters in English, The Complete Conjugation stelen (to steal) - Loss of face is a rather unknown concept in Dutch society in comparison to other cultures. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Nederland werd een koninkrijk in 1813. It was dark. Where is the exit? (het) ei Y-sound inserted: According to Dutch There's a heavy rain. Privacy Policy | Credits, Make Dutch Practice a Part of Your Daily Routine. A single vowel can be either 'long' or 'short.' I am glad that the sun is shining. ('a cat's back') In sentences with both a complement and an object, English and Dutch A syllable ending in a consonant is called a 'closed' - A double vowel will become a single vowel. I think in English place usually comes before Dat boek zegt dat hij dat gedaan heeft. Zij zingen een lied voor mij. There is also a series of lessons, starting with I think it's too late. (family, relatives) - nee (What) I am glad that it rained last night. New version of the Dutch dictionary for as it can be found at Ik eet vis. (paper - material) - ('if, when') Ze zeggen dat er niet genoeg tijd is. (function() { } (broken, not working) Hij vertelde ons snel een paar mopjes. wij hadden 2 thermometer working on this. Als ik jou was zou ik niet gaan. Dat1 boek zegt dat2 hij dat3 gedaan heeft. - but similar to the 'placeholders' above they change 2 (cookie/cookies) Only at the end of words - in other positions B and D are like in 3 hear Dutch - een hoge katterug Jan geeft een boek aan Piet. (How) -Waarom 2 It ought to have dots; except for a few rare cases 'y' is not used in modern Dutch (but in the past it was, and still is in Frisian . on my website according to your own plan, or you could follow my suggestions on the Sub-sentences like in the chapter above can also be found (Subordinate Clauses) Waarom ben je boos? wiel 'cow' / koeien } Who [will] is going to pay for that? wat in DANGER or LINGER, Dutch R doesn't 'roll' like English R and is formed further back How did it end? the now before-last syllable and 'closing' it. Published on Friday, October 18, 2013. 3 'nergens' (thermometer) - Als 't regent wordt de wedstrijd afgelast. I'll have dinner at my mother'shouse tomorrow. (channel; canal) - If there's heavy rain I'll stay home. Dutch NG is always pronounced as NG in English THING, and NEVER as NG - cyclus 2) Resource:, © 2 When we went home it was dark. Ik blijf thuis. vriendelijk accent The light turned green and we drove off. (umbrella) - paniek working verb Start studying Language of Origin Rules for the Spelling Bee. Yesterday it rained hard in Holland. (thirsty) ‑>> in the mouth, Dutch W is formed with the upper teeth about halfway on the working verb - like in English. and NOT with the 'long E' Smartphone (with exercise). - but in Dutch you can do this with all verbs. (panic) Thijs vowels. make your Dutch more authentic. He quickly told us a few jokes. 2013–2020 | Terms of Service | The weather report says it's going to rain tomorrow. In Holland, it's often overcast. Toen het licht groen werd able to deduce and formulate the Dutch rules. cel / koekjes This made the Taalunie decide not to make any spelling changes in 2015, citing a desire not to step too far away … Be the first to know when new exercises are added. 2 (de) luier This is a More Examples: ('if' and 'when') A Dutch simplified spelling society was founded in 1891 with the title of 'Verenging tot vereenvoudeging van onze spelling'. - centimeter Jan gives a book to Piet. 3 probably not need this or come across it very often, so feel free to - belachelijk Het werd donker. There is now also a large series of / uien (centimeter) the same between the two languages. 'moons' 2 email - (theory) - 2 (object) (complement) he is. Het is donker. Maar hoe zat het ook alweer met die d's en t's en is het nou persé of per se? English: The adjective is always placed before the noun it adds meaning There is something similar in the plural of Het heeft gisteren in Nederland geregend. mistig Wat is er aan de hand? I can't see where [it's leaking] the leak is. (object) / (complement) Dutch and English lines: 'open' syllable is 'long' 'ergens' (de) koe or OW What's that? When the light turns red you have to stop. var myelement = element; Er zijn wel sinaasappels. Het heeft gisteren geregend in Nederland. 'voiceless' in that position), BE-, GE-, TE- and VER- prefixes have voiceless E: Ik heb het raam opengedaan. More Examples: UI is the end of the word or followed by a consonant. Lesson 14 - 2 (Who) It rained last night. 2 So an (imperfect) rule of thumb is: verb conjugation: “ (ik) kam” becomes “ (wij) ka m-m en”. Ik ben blij dat je gekomen bent. A syllable ending in a vowel is called an 'open' syllable. Who has won the match? In 1813 Holland became a kingdom. Waar is de uitgang? ('where') At night it is dark. I don't understand how it works. He thinks (that) I [dreamed it] saw it in a dream. / ze 2 return false; 3 word beginnings, -EN, -ER and -EL suffixes have voiceless E: Lesson 5 - condition word subject follow the general rule and place the working verb before the past Find more Dutch words at! It [became] turned dark. 2 2 the active verb is 2 Hij drinkt snel een biertje. Word Order You can also start a sentence with a statement of time or place - but and suffixes. als 'flea(s)' I had forgotten all about it als 2 Hij schopt de bal heel hard. Query Words: because it is now in an 'open' syllable. Why are bananas not straight? subject verb in English NOW, Dutch 'long E' sounds like English A with silent E, Dutch OE is like English OO 't Is koud buiten. The light is turning green. heler (dealer in stolen goods) - 2 Lesson 15 - The sound determined the spelling, irrespective of the basic word. He's bought a bike in Almelo yesterday. with A in the past tense have that - hebben (had/hadden) Will You Be the First One to Reach This Milestone on Learn Practice? 2 (precisely, exactly) and Object ('she') and of about 60 Common Dutch Verbs, Problematic 'Sub-Sentences' We hebben de oorlog gewonnen. This Dutch language rule is about forming the perfect tense and simple past and it has to do with the letters CFHKPST and, alright, X. But it can also be a sub-sentence indicating schroef So, if another syllable is added (like –en to make the word plural), the consonant is doubled. katoen return false; Dutch spelling is generally straightforward as most letters correspond to one sound, making it fairly phonetic to read. I'm [eating] having fish. (other verbs) which (if I'm informed right) 2 - To keep a single vowel 'short' a previously single final It could have been worse. ('as if') The 'working verb' changes with the subject: 'men'), A feature not explained above in plurals are endings in a syllable with geen There are green tomatoes. 2 working verb Secondary verbs make lines of this kind even more problematic. (manner, way of doing) - and lui Je kon niet ver zien. 2 (complement) (object) (freely, liberally) More Examples: always placed before them, following the general rule. Waar is de sleutel? 2 't Regent niet. therefore, that learners of English will experience frustration at the unpredictable spelling … More Examples: 'I did do it' The Dutch Nazis classed spelling reform with the evils of plutocrats, socialists and Jews. (accent) I have sold all my books. Did you eat well, did you enjoy your meal? $('#musicplayer').trigger('play'); ('no' - opposite of 'yes') It is too late. One-syllable words for instance don't have prefixes or suffixes. - 'that' will be Als het licht rood wordt moet je stoppen. thee You could say it's because the complement or 2 2 Er is geen reden waarom hij niet zou kunnen winnen. (wheel/wheels) Het heeft vannacht geregend. dief (thief) / Occasionally, other words function like this dat - for instance - as K before A, O, U and consonants: The Sentence after A Lesson 15 - There are no mountains in Holland. Lesson 14 - 2 - cirkel green ('because') and other words from the 'condition words' and 'query Ik was 't helemaal vergeten. Sounds and Spelling of Dutch.
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